Understanding Breast Cancer

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This animation explains what breast cancer is and how it develops. You can learn about the signs and symptoms to watch for, and the factors that can increase the risk for getting breast cancer. Breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and types of breast cancer are also explained. You can also learn about the different ways that breast cancer is treated – including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, combination treatments, and clinical trials.

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The Medicos says:

Diagnosing breast cancer at home by breast self examination step by step https://youtu.be/zzM8nw_-OdQ

Bart De Bie says:

Medical professionals have failed to understand and explain to the general public and cancer patients that overbreathing (or hyperventilation) reduces one’s body oxygen level due to 3 fundamental laws of respiratory physiology:

1. When we hyperventilate (breathe more than the medical norm), we cannot improve oxygen content in the hemoglobin of the arterial blood (red blood cells are about 98% saturated with oxygen during tiny normal breathing).

2. Overbreathing reduces the CO2 concentration in the arterial blood causing a constriction of arteries and arterioles since CO2 is a powerful vasodilator. Hence, hyperventilation results in reduced perfusion and oxygen supply (confirmed by tens of published medical studies) for the liver, brain, heart, kidneys, stomach, colon, and other vital organs.

3. The reduced CO2 value in the tissues produces a shift in the O2 dissociation curve to the left. This leads to the so-called shallow or suppressed Bohr effect (a reduced O2 release by red blood cells in the capillaries).

Therefore, the more a cancer patient breathes beyond the norm, the less oxygen is provided for the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and other vital organs. Reduced cellular oxygenation leads to anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism, elevated lactic acid values, the formation of free radicals, and cell acidosis or a lowered pH in cells. On the contrary, CO2 is a chemical that is needed for tumor treatment, as numerous studies on carbogen use in cancer indications.

Since the growth of tumors depends on one’s body oxygen level, chronic hyperventilation promotes the growth of malignant cells and metastasis.
Therefore, breathing normalization and the correction of risk lifestyle factors must be a central part of any successful anti-cancer program or cancer cure.

References:
Baddeley H1, Brodrick PM, Taylor NJ, Abdelatti MO, Jordan LC, Vasudevan AS, Phillips H, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Gas exchange parameters in radiotherapy patients during breathing of 2%, 3.5% and 5% carbogen gas mixtures, , Br J Radiol. 2000 Oct;73(874):1100-4.

Powell ME, Hill SA, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Chaplin DJ, Human tumour blood flow is enhanced by nicotinamide and carbogen breathing, Cancer Res 1997 Dec 1; 57(23): p. 5261-5264.

Powell ME, Collingridge DR, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Hill SA, Chaplin DJ, Improvement in human tumour oxygenation with carbogen of varying carbon dioxide concentrations, Radiother Oncol 1999 Feb; 50(2): p. 167-171.

Thews O, Kelleher DK, Vaupel P, Dynamics of tumor oxygenation and red blood cell flux in response to inspiratory hyperoxia combined with different levels of inspiratory hypercapnia, Radiother Oncol. 2002 Jan; 62(1): p. 77-85.

Da Costa, Jacob Medes (January 1871). "On irritable heart; a clinical study of a form of functional cardiac disorder and its consequences". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences (61): 18–52.

B. Werigo, "Zur Frage uber die Wirkung des Sauerstoffs auf die Kohlensaureausscheidung in den Lungen," [The question about the effect of oxygen on the secretion of carbonic acid in the lungs]. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. (in German), 51 (1892), 321-361.

Concerning a Biologically Important Relationship – The Influence of the Carbon Dioxide Content of Blood on its Oxygen Binding by Chr. Bohr, K. Hasselbalch, and August Krogh from the Physiology Laboratory of the University of Copenhagen (1904).

Douglas CG, Haldane JS, The regulation of normal breathing, Journal of Physiology 1909; 38: p. 420–440.

Carbon Dioxide by Professor Yandell Henderson, MD, PhD from the Cyclopedia of Medicine (1940)

Henderson Y, Acapnia and shock. Carbon dioxide as a factor in the regulation of the heart rate, American Journal of Physiology 1908, 21: p. 126-156.

The HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) alpha is required for solid tumor formation and embryonic vascularization (Ryan H, Lo J, Johnson RS, EMBO Journal 1998).

Hypoxia: a key regulatory factor in tumor growth (Harris AL, National Review in Cancer 2002)

Prognostic significance of tumor oxygenation in humans (Evans SM & Koch CJ, Cancer Letters 2003).

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a positive factor in solid tumor growth (Ryan HE, Poloni M, McNulty W, Elson D, Gassmann M, Arbeit JM, Johnson RS, Cancer Research 2000).

Tumor oxygenation predicts for the likelihood of distant metastases in human soft tissue sarcoma (Brizel DM, Scully SP, Harrelson JM, Layfield LJ, Bean JM, Prosnitz LR, Dewhirst MW, Cancer Research 1996).

Bart De Bie says:

Cancer patients, as it has been shown by numerous published studies, breathe more frequently than the norm.

Typical breathing frequencies in advanced cancer patients are about 26-30, in some studies more than 40 breaths per minute. (This parameter cannot be measured by the cancer patient herself, due to changes in the breathing pattern, but can be easily defined by others when she is at rest or during non-REM sleep. The official norm is 10-12 breaths per minute at rest.)

Those cancer sufferers, who breathe faster or more frequently, have higher mortality rates and poorer prognosis. Therefore, breathing normalization and the correction of risk lifestyle factors must be a central part of any successful anti-cancer program or cancer cure.

References:
Reuben DB, Mor V, Dyspnea in terminally ill cancer patients, Chest 1986; 89: p. 234–236.

Dudgeon DJ, Lertzman M, Dyspnea in the advanced cancer patient, J Pain Symptom Management 1998 Oct; 16(4): p.212–219.

Bruera E, MacEachern T, Ripamonti C, Hanson J, Subcutaneous morphine for dyspnea in cancer patients, Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: p. 906–907.

Travers J, Dudgeon DJ, Amjadi K, McBride I, Dillon K, Laveneziana P, Ofir D, Webb KA, O’Donnell DE, Mechanisms of exertional dyspnea in patients with cancer, J Appl Physiol 2008 Jan; 104(1): p.57–66.

Chiang JK, Lai NS, Wang MH, Chen SC, Kao YH, A proposed prognostic 7-day survival formula for patients with terminal cancer, BMC Public Health. 2009 Sep 29; 9(1): p.365.

Clemens KE, Klaschik E, Effect of hydromorphone on ventilation in palliative care patients with dyspnea, Support Care Cancer. 2008 Jan; 16(1): p.93–99. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

Clemens KE, Klaschik E, Symptomatic therapy of dyspnea with strong opioids and its effect on ventilation in palliative care patients, J Pain Symptom Management 2007 Apr; 33(4): p.473–481.

Coyne PJ, Viswanathan R, Smith TJ, Nebulized Fentanyl Citrate Improves Patients’ Perception of Breathing, Respiratory Rate, and Oxygen Saturation in Dyspnea, J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23: p.157–160.

de Miguel Sanchez C, Elustondo SG, Estirado A, Sanchez FV, de la Rasilla Cooper CG, Romero AL, Otero A, Olmos LG, Palliative Performance Status, Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate as Predictive Factors of Survival Time in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients, J Pain Symptom Managem. June 2006; 31(6), p. 485–492.

Groeger JS, Lemeshow S, Price K, Nierman DM, White P Jr, Klar J, Granovsky S, Horak D, Kish SK, Multicenter outcome study of cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a probability of mortality model, J Clin Oncol. 1998 Feb; 16(2): p.761–770.

Mazzocato C, Buclin T, Rapin CH, The effects of morphine on dyspnea and ventilatory function in elderly patients with advanced cancer: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, Annals of Oncology. 1999 Dec; 10(12): p.1511–1514.

Baddeley H1, Brodrick PM, Taylor NJ, Abdelatti MO, Jordan LC, Vasudevan AS, Phillips H, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Gas exchange parameters in radiotherapy patients during breathing of 2%, 3.5% and 5% carbogen gas mixtures, , Br J Radiol. 2000 Oct;73(874):1100-4.

Powell ME, Hill SA, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Chaplin DJ, Human tumour blood flow is enhanced by nicotinamide and carbogen breathing, Cancer Res 1997 Dec 1; 57(23): p. 5261-5264.

Powell ME, Collingridge DR, Saunders MI, Hoskin PJ, Hill SA, Chaplin DJ, Improvement in human tumour oxygenation with carbogen of varying carbon dioxide concentrations, Radiother Oncol 1999 Feb; 50(2): p. 167-171.

Thews O, Kelleher DK, Vaupel P, Dynamics of tumor oxygenation and red blood cell flux in response to inspiratory hyperoxia combined with different levels of inspiratory hypercapnia, Radiother Oncol. 2002 Jan; 62(1): p. 77-85.

The HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) alpha is required for solid tumor formation and embryonic vascularization (Ryan H, Lo J, Johnson RS, EMBO Journal 1998).

Hypoxia: a key regulatory factor in tumor growth (Harris AL, National Review in Cancer 2002)

Prognostic significance of tumor oxygenation in humans (Evans SM & Koch CJ, Cancer Letters 2003).

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a positive factor in solid tumor growth (Ryan HE, Poloni M, McNulty W, Elson D, Gassmann M, Arbeit JM, Johnson RS, Cancer Research 2000).

Tumor oxygenation predicts for the likelihood of distant metastases in human soft tissue sarcoma (Brizel DM, Scully SP, Harrelson JM, Layfield LJ, Bean JM, Prosnitz LR, Dewhirst MW, Cancer Research 1996).

Bart De Bie says:

For more information about the Buteyko method you can read the following 2 articles:

– Kazarinov V.A. (1990) "The biochemical basis of KP Buteyko's theory of the diseases of deep respiration"

– V.K. Buteyko, M.M. Buteyko (2005) “The Buteyko theory about a key role of breathing for human health: scientific introduction to the Buteyko therapy for experts”

Bart De Bie says:

About The Buteyko Method: A Summary of the Pathophysiology of Chronic Hyperventilation by Ira Packman, M.D.

The fact that chronic hyperventilation (CHV) has an effect on the lungs is easily understood and explained. The systemic (whole body) effects however, are physically and physiologically distant from the lungs and therefore are more difficult to understand. The multi-system, wide spread systemic ramifications of chronic hyperventilation are numerous.

These effects are all caused by the initial effect of pulmonary hypocapnia (low CO2) which causes spasm of the airways leading to asthma. The loss of CO2 from the lung on a long term basis causes a compensatory response throughout the body. This concept is called homeostasis which means that the body is always trying to stay in balance and return to its most comfortable state.

A partial list of homeostatic controls would include:
– Constant body temperature
– Constant whole body water volume
– Glucose levels
– Mineral balance including sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc etc.
– Acid base balance (Ph control)

The acid base/Ph control mechanisms are very sensitive and closely controlled, because the Ph of the body affects the function of every body system. It is this system that is activated when patients chronically hyperventilate.

Understanding this concept, we can follow what happens with CHV.

– The lungs continuously blow off too much CO2 causing local pulmonary hypocapnia (low CO2) and arterial hypocapnia.

– The arterial hypocapnia immediately changes the Ph of the circulating blood causing an increase in the Ph (alkalosis).

– The increase in the Ph causes a decrease in the delivery of Oxygen to all the bodies tissues due to the Bohr Effect (In an alkalotic environment, the hemoglobin molecules in the red cells hold onto the oxygen molecules more tightly and will not release the O2 to the tissues).

– The kidneys see the alkalosis/Ph change and know that it must correct the bodies Ph back towards neutral (neutral Ph is a Ph of 7.40). Once CHV becomes long standing the kidneys response becomes an ongoing process in which the kidneys excrete bicarbonate in an attempt to correct the alkalosis which was created by the CHV.

– The net result is a depletion of the bicarbonate buffers due to continuous over excretion of bicarbonate which also causes the loss of electrolytes including magnesium and phosphorous which are lost with the bicarbonate.

– The loss of phosphorous also decreases the production of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) and ADP which are the bodies’ main source of energy.

– This then causes a decrease in the functioning of many organs including the muscles, heart, lungs, bone marrow, immune system and liver.

– These functional changes, coupled with the arterial spasm that occurs directly due to the low CO2 levels in the blood, are expressed in the long term as muscle fatigue, hypertension due to arterial spasm, decrease in the oxygenation of the brain, migraine headaches due to arterial spasm, spasm of the arteries supplying the gut, decrease brain function with memory changes, alterations in the production of proteins and metabolism of lipids in the liver causing elevated cholesterol.

This is just a partial list of the systems, organs and bodily functions which are affected by CHV and the subsequent low CO2 levels in the lungs and blood.

This concept regarding the origins and causes of these diseases is very radically different from the way medical schools teach about these diseases. It is revolutionary and may be too simple for many academicians to accept or understand.

Bart De Bie says:

Getting Started
by Peter Kolb

While the Buteyko method introduced into the west has been getting excellent results, it does not entirely accord with Professor Buteyko’s recommended practice. During two weeks he spent in New Zealand in December 2000, he demonstrated the Buteyko technique as it should be practiced.

Aim
Firstly, it needs to be understood that breathing too much is a bad habit that leaves you with a debilitating shortage of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. It usually results from long term, undischarged stress. Any stress makes you breathe more. If this is sustained over a long time period it becomes a habit. The physiology behind this habituation process is well understood. Buteyko therapy aims at reversing this, by habituating to less breathing. You do this by developing and sustaining a feeling of a slight shortage of air over a long time period. This gradually restores your carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels back to normal.

Maximum Pause
While it is possible to stifle an asthma attack with a long and uncomfortable breath hold know as a maximum pause (MP), this procedure does not reverse your asthma and does not retrain the respiratory center to pace your breathing correctly. Professor Buteyko is emphatic that the maximum pause has no therapeutic value in restoring healthy breathing, which is the aim of his therapy. It is also dangerous for people with various disorders such as hypertension, heart disease, epilepsy, kidney disease and diabetes. It can also destabilize your breathing, making it worse. Unfortunately the maximum pause has been introduced into a westernized version of the Buteyko technique, much to the annoyance of the Professor.

An understanding of the physiology behind the Bueyko method leaves no doubt that the maximum pause cannot improve your breathing.

DIY/Self-help
Professor Buteyko is firmly opposed to the DIY/self-help approach. The Buteyko technique relies 100% on patient compliance for effectiveness. Learning it from a script is like learning Yoga or martial arts from a book. Most people will experience changes in their bodies as their CO2 levels rise. These changes vary from one individual to another. Buteyko practitioners help you deal with these changes, keep you motivated and ensure that you do the breathing exercises correctly. Support for your Buteyko practitioner enables him to continue his work of bringing the technique to other sufferers.

Nevertheless, very few people around the world have access to a Buteyko practitioner. So here are some basics to help get you started.

Medication
Do not make any changes to medication. Steroids must be taken as prescribed. Because of carbon dioxide shortage asthmatics often don’t make enough Cortisol (natural steroid) and must have supplements. Steroids are not just anti-inflammatories but they are needed by the body and without the right amount it can be almost impossible to get breathing back to normal. Your doctor will be able to review your need for steroids when you stop having asthma symptoms.

Bronchodilators must be taken only when needed. As you progress, discuss with your doctor the possibility of weaning yourself off long acting bronchodilators and replacing them with short acting ones. That will give you more control over using them when needed. You should find that within days you will be able to overcome asthma attacks with reduced breathing and won’t need the bronchodilators. Nevertheless, you must always carry them with you for emergencies.

Nose breathing
Always breathe through your nose. If your nose is blocked perform the following exercise: After breathing normally (do not make any exaggerated breathing manoeuvre), hold your breath for as long as is comfortable, and then gradually resume very gentle breathing. It may help to pinch your nose, nod your head a few times or do some other form of exercise. In stubborn cases or when the blockage is due to a cold, you may have to try a few more times.

To avoid breathing through your mouth in your sleep, you might like to experiment with a little light medical paper tape to keep your mouth closed. Mouth taping at night is not recommended by Professor Buteyko, but most people find it extremely valuable. If you do, protect your lips with suitable cream, use a low tack tape (some are quite aggressive), and make sure you fold a tab or handle at each end for rapid and easy removal. Do not go to sleep with tape on your mouth if this causes any form of anxiety.

Comfort
Make sure you’re comfortable before starting the exercises. Remove unnecessary clothing since the improved blood carbon dioxide will dilate blood vessels in the skin, thereby warming you up.

Posture
To get your posture right stand with your back to a wall, heels, shoulders head and bottom touching the wall. Now drop your shoulders. Keep this upper body posture when sitting.

Relaxation
While maintaining your posture, relax all the muscles in your chest, neck, shoulders, arms, tummy and particularly the diaphragm. It’s a good idea to tense them up a bit first before relaxing them so that you can properly identify them and make sure they are all relaxed.

Normal Breathing
Take off your shirt and stand in front of a full length mirror. Watch your chest and tummy for breathing movement. Make sure that your chest does not move at all, and only the upper part of the tummy moves, between navel and breast bone. The second thing to check for is that the tummy moves out with each in breath and not the other way around. Many people get this wrong. Your out-breath must be free, relaxed and unforced.

Reduced breathing (RB)
Your aim is to develop a feeling of slight hunger for air, sustain this over a period and do this frequently. In fact, this should become a habit so that you do it all the time until you have achieved your health goal.

Try to feel your breathing and become aware of your breathing pattern. Now try to maintain this pattern while taking in just a little less air on each breath so that you develop a slight hunger for air. Initially try to sustain this for two minutes, then five and then ten.

If you follow all the steps correctly, then you should feel really calm, good and even a little sleepy. If you already practice relaxation techniques, yoga etc, you can combine them with reduced breathing.

Measuring your breathing
Hyperventilators breathe more than normal in order to achieve lower than normal blood carbon dioxide levels. It follows that if you have to breathe more than normal, then you will also not be able to hold your breath as long as you should. Professor Buteyko has cunningly used this principle to measure your blood carbon dioxide by testing how long you can hold your breath.

You start the pause somewhere in your normal breathing cycle. This is how you start the pause: Look up with your eyes and at the same time pinch your nose and start a stop watch. Just before it starts to get uncomfortable, stop the stop watch and resume normal breathing. You should be able to resume normal breathing without any effort and without taking deeper or more frequent breaths.

Some precautions:
– Do not take a deeper breath before the pause.
– Do not make any attempt to empty the lungs before the pause.
– Do not worry about which phase of the respiratory cycle you happen to be in before starting the pause. A pause is just an interruption of normal breathing.

The time in seconds is called a Control Pause (CP). Asthmatics typically have a CP of 5 – 15 seconds. (But not everyone with such a low CP has asthma.) Your aim is to achieve a CP greater than 40 seconds, although for perfect health Professor Buteyko recommends a CP of at least 60 seconds.

Doing a Set
When at rest, correctly seated, comfortable and relaxed and after breathing normally for at least five minutes you are ready to do a set. A set consists of
Pulse – CP – Reduced breathing – 3min normal breathing – Pulse – CP

First measure your pulse and then do a CP. Record the results on a table. Then do reduced breathing for ten minutes. Breathe normally for three minutes, then take your pulse again and take another CP. If you’ve done your reduced breathing correctly your pulse should go down and your CP should go up. Sometimes the pulse remains the same. If it goes up you’re not doing it correctly.

After three days you should be able to do around 8 to 10 sets a day. You can then start integrating reduced breathing into your daily life. Ideally you should aim at doing reduced breathing all day.

That takes care of the exercises. Here are a few helpful hints to help your recovery.
– Don’t eat unless you are hungry. Only eat until you have had enough. Eating increases breathing; eating excessively increases breathing excessively.
– Don’t dress too warmly. Be careful not to overdress children. If you are worried about them being cold, check their ears, nose, hands and feet. If these are warm, they’re OK.
– Make sure you get plenty of vigorous exercise. But don’t exercise to the point where you have to open your mouth to breathe.

If any of these recommendations make you dizzy, sick, anxious or give you palpitations, stop immediately. If possible see a Buteyko practitioner.

Bart De Bie says:

Best Breast Cancer Trial Ever Known: 6 Times Less Mortality.
The clinical trial was conducted by Sergey Paschenko, MD, a pupil of Dr. Konstantin Buteyko (the author of the Buteyko breathing method). The study was published by the Ukrainian National Journal of Oncology (Kiev, 2001, v. 3, No.1, p. 77-78, “Study of application of the shallow breathing method in a combined treatment of breast cancer”).

One hundred twenty patients with breast cancer (T1-2N1M0) participated in this study. (These letters and numbers relate to cancer parameters. For T1-2: the tumors are less than 5 cm or 2 inches in size; N1: cancer has spread to 1 to 3 axillary (underarm) lymph nodes, and/or tiny amounts of cancer are found in internal mammary lymph nodes (those near the breastbone) on sentinel lymph node biopsy; M0: no distant metastasis). All patients had a standard anti-cancer therapy that included the surgical removal of tumors. However, in addition to this therapy, the breathing retraining group (67 patients) practiced shallow breathing exercises. Their parameters were compared with the control group (the remaining 53 patients). The three-year mortality rate for the breathing normalization group was 4.5% and for the control group 24.5%. Hence, breathing normalization decreased a 3-year mortality by more than 5 times. All patients who normalized their breathing survived.

Girl in The South says:

Very informative! Thank you!

Snehal Pandya says:

You have missed out an important cause of breast cancer…that is diet. Increased consumption of cheese causes breast cancer. North American dairy milk contains estrogen hormones and when that is converted to cheese, the estrogen level becomes concentrated. 12000 doctors across the US are planning to represent to FDA to put warning labels on cheese just as we would see on cigarettes.

reza khadem says:

I am sorry about this long comment, but the video does not sound like it's creator knows anything about nutrition, or the role it plays in cancer. It is all about procedures and medications because that's where the $$$$ is.

The stuff sold as human food are products of the evolution of food commodities that maximize profit margins. There are powerful forces that benefit from making people sick! This is not a conspiracy theory, but a fact about the way food items are produced.
“Health” industries have benefited from “sick” people; and their profit margins are directly dependent on the consumption of stuff sold as human food. They have influenced the very institutions that are supposed to help people see the truth, to the point that a good number of these institutions have become complicit in profiting from people’s suffering.
People are addicted to the stuff they are fed by the food industries! Food addiction is much harder to grapple with than any other chemical addiction! I like the comparison Dr. Greger (from nutritionfacts.org) makes with the cigarette addiction; he notes that what we are dealing with today with food addiction is similar to the time when many, including the majority of doctors and scientists, were addicted to cigarettes. People need to first face the fact that they are addicted to the “food” that is making them sick, and then try to deal with it. But it is hard for people to break their denial of their own food addiction.
What about cance?

Cancer is typically considered to develop in a sequence of three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Dr. T. Colin Campbell's Cancer Research has resulted in an understanding of the role genes, chemicals, and nutrition play in cancer development in all three stages. The specific effects of the amount and type of protein consumed have been studied. Others in the scientific community have overemphasized the role of chemical carcinogens, which are mainly initiators of cancer; they have under-emphasized nutrient imbalances (such as the amount and type of protein consumed) as causes of cancer. But animal protein has shown to play an important role in development of cancer in all three stages of cancer. Specifically, the role protein plays in the promotion stage has been studied extensively. In the initiation stage carcinogens (in foods, added to foods, or in the environment) are absorbed and then enzymatically converted to products that are excreted from the body. The small amount of the chemicals is converted to a highly reactive product that converts normal genes to cancer genes. Most of the damaged DNAs are repaired by the body; if cells containing the damaged DNA do not get repaired and allowed to divide into new cells, then the mutations become fixated in the future cell generations. The damaged (un-repaired) cells continue to multiply through the promotion stage, and begin to form clusters (foci) which may be seen microscopically. These foci gradually grow into active tumors, and are diagnosed eventually as cancer. Tumors may metastasize, leave and invade neighboring or distant tissues. These cancerous cells become malignant, which means they become relatively independent, aggressive, and resistant to their destruction.
The role of protein
Dr. Campbell’s team in Philippines (1970s) observed that children who consumed higher protein diets were the ones with higher rate of liver cancer. This was an early indication of the possible relationship between cancer and consumption of protein. His experimental research has later experimentally measured early lesions (called GGT-positive foci) that would lead to tumors. These GGT foci are considered early events in carcinogenic processes. Protein feeding in rats with viral cancers caused by Aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus showed an increase in early tumor development. The 20% protein diet turned GGT foci development, but 5% protein diet turned off the GGT foci development. They also discovered experimentally that animals fed 20% protein diet had lots of tumors and all died by 100 weeks, and the ones fed 5% protein diet were energetic and well at 100 weeks. This was true for viral and chemical induced cancers. Dr. Campbell’s research has shown that high protein affects cancer development during both the initiation and promotion stages. They found explanatory mechanisms that were caused by high protein diet. Throughout the studies they used casein (cow’s milk protein), and observed that soy and wheat proteins did not have the same effect at 20% protein diet. The dose response relationship started at levels above 10%. The 20% protein diet also caused an increase in the liver MFO enzyme activity in the initiation stage. MFO is the principle enzyme responsible for metabolizing carcinogens. In addition to the effects high protein diet showed in the initiation and promotion stages, it was shown that small shifts in percentage of protein diet can turn cancer on and off even at relatively advanced stages of disease!
In studies of effects of carcinogens on animals the amounts used are several orders of magnitude higher than in the human studies. This causes the need for extrapolation from animal studies to human studies. But, in the case of casein, the amount of casein humans consume is at the same order of magnitude as in animal studies. This, according to Dr. Campbell, makes casein the most significant carcinogen ever discovered! Others in the scientific community have ignored the one carcinogen that has been shown to cause cancer at the levels that don’t require extrapolation to low level exposure in humans, and have made a huge deal about the ones that are not as relevant (as far as statistical theory is concerned)!
What about animal protein other than milk?
As Dr. Campbell puts it: “The adverse effects of animal protein, as illustrated in our laboratory by the effects of casein, are related to their amino acid composition.” There are small differences in amino acid composition of various animal proteins compared to plant proteins.
Angiogenesis, cancer, and foods:
It turns out that our circulatory system is not just about delivery of oxygen and nutrients to cells; the system of circulatory involves a balance that has to be kept or we develop different diseases. Different foods we eat have the power of changing this balance. Nutrition activity during the promotion stage indicates that cancer development can be controlled or even reversed by nutritional means. Dr. W. Li explains that cancer is a disease that involves excessive angiogenesis, and that many drugs that are supposed to treat cancer are designed to inhibit angiogenesis. He says foods are chemotherapy that we take three times per day! Foods can do the same as the drugs; food can affect angiogenesis balance (mainly inhibit), and can be used to inhibit blood vessel formation in cancer patients. Dr. Ornish's prostate cancer research has shown that these same intensive lifestyle changes during a one-year period on men with early-stage prostate cancer who chose not to undergo conventional treatment. The degree of change in diet and lifestyle was significantly associated with the progression of low-grade, early prostate cancer in men. He showed that the same diet and lifestyle changes that improved or reversed heart disease also impacted cancer in patients. Although these examples are not directly related to animal protein consumption, but they are related to the lack of consumption of animal protein! The Whole Food Plant Based seem to help the body to prevent diseases, including cancer, and heal itself; and the high animal protein diet has shown to promote diseases, including cancer.

Relevant References:
Dunaif GE, Campbell TC. Dietary protein level and aflatoxin B1-induced preneoplastic hepatic lesions in the rat. J. Nutr. 1987; 117: 1298–1302.
Madhavan TV, Gopalan C. The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Arch Path. 1968; 85: 133–137.
Milman HA, Weisburger EK. Handbook of Carcinogen Testing, 2nd Edition. Saddle River, NJ: Noyes Publications; 1994.
Youngman LD, Campbell TC. Inhibition of aflatoxin B1-induced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) hepatic preneoplastic foci and tumors by low protein diets: evidence that altered GGT+ foci indicate neoplastic potential. Carcinogenesis. 1992; 13: 1607–1613.
Madhavan TV, Gopalan C. The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Arch. Path. 1968; 85: 133–137.
Youngman LD, Campbell TC. High protein intake promotes the growth of preneoplastic foci in Fischer #344 rats: evidence that early remodeled foci retain the potential for future growth. J. Nutr. 1991; 121.

Mzhda Khalid says:

So informative❤

Marine says:

0:05

Breasts are made up of fatty tissue. They contain small chambers called lobules where breast milk is made. The milk travels through tiny channels called ducts to reach the nipples.

Lymph nodes are located inside your breasts and under your arms. They are connected by lymph vessels and they help your body fight disease.

0:44

Breast cancer that develops inside the milk ducts is called “ductal carcinoma in situ", or DCIS. When DCIS spreads into surrounding tissue, it is called “invasive ductal carcinoma”, or IDC.

Abnormal cells can develop in the lobules of the breast. They are called “lobular carcinoma in situ", or LCIS, and are not cancer. When these cells spread into surrounding tissue, they become a cancer called “invasive lobular carcinoma”.

3:25

Doctors classify breast cancers based on how they behave. This includes:

•Non-invasive – cancer that has not spread outside the tissue where it began,

•Invasive – cancer that has spread and invaded healthy tissue,

•Recurrent – cancer that returns after it was treated, and

•Metastatic – cancer that has spread from the area where it started to other areas of the body.

Common types of breast cancer are: Invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular cancer.

Less common types of breast cancer include: Inflammatory breast cancer, Tubular breast cancer, Colloid breast cancer, and Metaplastic breast cancer.

4:21

Breast cancer staging is determined by the size and location of the cancer and whether it has spread to other areas in your body. (expliquer schéma des différents stages)

7:10

Metastatic breast cancer is cancer that has spread from the breast to other areas of the body. The most common places are the liver, bones, lungs, and brain. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer and treatment is to prolong survival.

Today, people are living 5, 10, or more years with metastatic breast cancer due to advances in treatment.

StarlightnDust says:

This is excellent information. Very comprehensive.

Dr shareef says:

Great information

Ritten Brake says:

Very good , informative

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