A Brief History of the Universe: Crash Course Astronomy #44

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Thanks to the wonders of physics, astronomers can map a timeline of the universe’s history. Today, Phil’s going to give you an overview of those first few minutes (yes, MINUTES) of the universe’s life. It started with a Big Bang, when the Universe was incredibly dense and hot. It expanded and cooled, going through multiple stages where different kinds of matter could form. It underwent a phenomenally rapid expansion called inflation, which smoothed out much of the lumpiness in the matter. Normal matter formed atoms between 3 and 20 minutes after the bang, and the lumps left over from inflation formed the galaxies and larger structures we see today.

Crash Course Astronomy Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-astronomy-poster

Table of Contents
Mapping the History of the Universe Using Math and Observations 00:41
It Started With A Bang! 1:58
Rapid Expansion Smoothed Out Matter 4:55
Normal Matter Formed After 3-20 Minutes 5:12

PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

Follow Phil on Twitter: https://twitter.com/badastronomer

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Proton Collision Event with Boosters and LHC https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhXMXiXOWAA [credit: ATLAS]
Melting Snowball video courtesy of Phil Plait
Big Bang to Hubble http://www.spacetelescope.org/videos/hst15_big_bang_to_hubble/ [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)]
Journey to the centre of the Sun http://www.spacetelescope.org/videos/astro_ac/ [credit: ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)]
PIA16873: Best Map Ever of the Universe http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16873 [credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration]
A high resolution foreground cleaned CMB map from WMAP http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/mapforegs.pdf [credit: Tegmark et al.]
Planck comb rbcol scaled http://www.astro.cardiff.ac.uk/~spxcen/CMB_Sims/Planck_comb_rbcol_scaled.png [credit: Chris North, Cardiff University]
WMAP’s Portrait of the Early Universe http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=10123 [credit: NASA]


NavyDood21 says:

I still can't get over the Bill, Bob, and Jeb figures on your desk.

taytokitalove says:

Who dislikes This? …

Adam Fuse says:

The universe automatically being there is like 0^0 or 0*0, 0 times is 1. Nothing times nothing is something.

MatsDagerlind says:

Also, I think the scientists are on a wild goose chase, searching for dark matter and dark energy. There are probably no such things. The calculations that indicates this, i.e. that there is a lot of matter and energy missing to account for the gravity etc. that can be observed may in themselves be correct. But the explanation is not dark matter and dark energy. Rather it is something entirely different and new to science.

We need to think way out of the box and consider forces like awareness and will in addition to classic physics, relativity and quantum physics. We also need to consider that there isn't anything but math, as Max Tegmark claims, that everything is just a perceived manifestation of an abstraction, like a computer program. Some sicentists even think we are part of and living in a simulation. If so, perhaps scientists can make peace with the religious and agree on that the gods are the ones who created this simulation.

MatsDagerlind says:

The inflation theory, at least how it is explained to us laymen by the cosmologists, isn't very credible. It contradicts Ensteins rule that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.

There is also no answer to the question why the inflation suddenly stopped. And if we accept that it mysteriously stopped, we can perhaps accept that the universe contiued to expand as a resiude of the force that was behind the inflation and still does today. But there is no explanation in this theory why the expansion should accelerate, which the scientists claim it does. In fact there is no explanation for this, even if we disregard the inflation theory and go back to the old big bang theory.

Anuar Tussupbekov says:

Stop watch this BS and read bible

Nah just trolling… Science is amazing.

Andrew Van Lare says:


Aaron Horrell says:

Great, now I need Crash Course Physics and Crash Course Maths to understand more cosmology

Draxis32 says:

Red Dwarfs can stay at phase 1 fusion for almost a trillion years. So it is possible that somewhere out there in this vast nothingness of space there is roaming Red Dwarfs that were the first stars formed! What a magic it would be to visit one of these things and analyse it's composition!

Brad Stollery says:

Crash Course Climatology would be a really good one.

Jesse Quintana says:

Do a crash course of chemistry, biology, grammar, English vowels, science, and Christian theology and studying and reading.

MaDeLapHnT says:

yes ive asked for crash course physics to i cant wait until it happens. chemistry has alot of physics discussion almost to tease us

chigurh123 says:

I personally do not believe the Big Bang but thanks for astronomy lessons

Jason93609 says:

These are all great videos, as always. When it comes to inflationary cosmology it might help to clarify that the inflationary period (which is usually only bounded from below in terms of its duration) diluted any particle content that might have existed initially – so that at the end of inflation we have an essentially empty universe which is then filled once again with particles during reheating when inflation comes to an end.

Anthony Pena says:

Scientists really don't have a clue about when the universe started…3 minutes?! Ok Crash Course since your asking the big questions, when are you going to do a series about GOD? And to all the trolls that might want to respond to my post…DON'T WASTE MY TIME just keep your stupid troll comments to yourself.

Anna Presman says:

You what will be a cool Crash Course? The history of scientific progress. From simple tools, fire and language, to spacecraft and the large hadron collider.

Emm Kay says:

6:38 So before this year 380,000, where was that heat radiating to? How did the universe cool?

Dunce Gamer says:

dont end the series plzzzzzzz

Vlegsee says:

Are there any theories on what could be on the outside of the universe? like it there just a wall where it stops and something else begins or we just don't know yet?

Oliver Bollmann says:

In the beginning there was nothing. Then it exploded. :D

joseph t says:

The big bang theory is dumb and flaw . if all the matter in the universe compact into the size smaller than the atom wouldnt it turn into a Blackhole??? and how could the empty vacuum of space expand? its not like a baloon filled with air, now if you vacuum out the air inside the balloon will the empty space inside the balloon expand..

If the solar system is revolving around the center of the milkyway and the milkyway is revolving around the Virgo cluster and the Virgo cluster is moving around the Virgo super cluster and the super Virgo cluster is moving towards the Great Attractor ( and very other super cluster is moving towards the Great Attractor too)

if Andromeda is moving towards the Milkyway in 4.5 billions years from now it must be 9-10 million Light years away 13.7 billion years ago according to hubbles observation.

if you look at the ultra deep field from hubble you will see red galaxies and blue galaxies and ones in between. which means the age of those galaxies are all different age.

the redshift is flaw too . why is the sky red/amber during sunrise too? even though its suppose to be blueshifted and the light wave being compressed. an two galaxies colliding they should be about at the same distance not one is 150 ly and the other 250 ly

you cannot see a galaxy that moving side to side or moving away that is a bllion ly away
that is impossible obersavtion unless you observer it for a few million years at the least.

Ken Bell says:

When we talk about the beginning of the universe referring to the first second, or nano second or femtosecond in terms of the states of matter and energy , it makes no sense. Time, the way we understand it and more importantly, time"s arrow didn't necessarily exist.Its only our perception, based on present entropy that makes it look like an explosion.

So, consider the possibility of a portion of the early universe tunneling through anti-time to ??

Olena Tkachuk says:

How can you determine the exact # of minutes before atoms were a thing?

DGSEagence says:

Thanks again for your incredible work. We learn so much with you, it's really interesting. And you make us plunge in the abyss of the magnificient universe.

killer14bee says:

Singularity -> Big Bang -> Formation of Galaxies -> Formation of the Solar System -> Evolutionary History of Life on Earth.

That's a quick history of our universe in five parts!

URKillingme100 says:

How is it even remotely possible that you can make a statement like "Normal matter (atoms) formed 3-20 minutes after the big bang"? I would be more inclined to believe your statement if you said, "A very short time, perhaps several minutes later…" To give a number, or set of numbers is absurd and completely impossible to prove.

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