Now that we’re done with the planets, asteroid belt, and comets, we’re heading to the outskirts of the solar system. Out past Neptune are vast reservoirs of icy bodies that can become comets if they get poked into the inner solar system. The Kuiper Belt is a donut shape aligned with the plane of the solar system; the scattered disk is more eccentric and is the source of short period comets; and the Oort Cloud which surrounds the solar system out to great distances is the source of long-period comets. These bodies all probably formed closer into the Sun, and got flung out to the solar system’s suburbs by gravitational interactions with the outer planets.
Table of Contents
Icy Bodies That Can Become Comets 0:27
The Kuiper Belt is a Donut Shape Aligned With the Plane of the Solar System 2:57
The Scattered Disk is More Eccentric and the Source of Short Period Comets 4:26
Oort Cloud Surrounds Our Solar System and is the Source of Long-Period Comets 4:04
These Bodies Probably Formed Near the Sun and Dispersed Through Gravitational Interactions 5:41
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HD Long Exposure Star Timelapse https://vimeo.com/34172172 [credit: Jeffrey Beach, Beachfront B-Roll]
Fine Structure in the Comet’s Jets http://blogs.esa.int/rosetta/2015/01/16/fine-structure-in-the-comets-jets/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protoplanetary_disk#mediaviewer/File:Artist%E2%80%99s_Impression_of_a_Baby_Star_Still_Surrounded_by_a_Protoplanetary_Disc.jpg [credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA]
Artist’s impression of a protoplanetary disk. [credit: ESO/L. Calçada – ESO]
Creating Gas Giants http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11541 [credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center]
What is a Sungrazing Comet? http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=11307 [credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center]
Pluto/Neptune Orbit http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/files/images/browse/plutoneptune.gif [credit: NASA]
1992 QB1 http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/1992_QB14.jpg [credit: ESO]
Eris http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060918.html [credit: W. M. Keck Observatory]
Moons of Pluto http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerberos_(moon)#/media/File:Moons_of_Pluto.png [credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Showalter (SETI institute)]
New Horizons Approach http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/common/content/animations/New-Horizons-Voyage-to-Pluto/ApproachingPluto1280.mp4 [credit: JHUAPL]
Moon http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003800/a003894/phase04_full.jpg [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio]
Pluto http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?Category=Planets&IM_ID=20073 [credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute]
Sedna’s Orbit http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sedna-PIA05569-crop.jpg [credit: NASA]
Artist’s Conception of Kuiper Belt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:14-281-KuiperBeltObject-ArtistsConcept-20141015.jpg [credit: NASA, Wikimedia Commons]
Kuiper Belt World (video) http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/video/41 [credit: NASA Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]
Pluto Discovery Plates http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/loaselect/id/25/rec/1 [credit: Clyde Tombaugh, Lowell Observatory]
How do we know the ages of things regarding the universe? I heard that it was based on the current rate of expansion – but isn't that making a VERY serious error in assuming that the rate of expansion has been a constant since the big bang?
makes so much sense
If anything the size range for any of these far distant planets would be from 4x the size of Earth to roughly 20x the size of Earth but yet there's more likely to be 2 objects of which one being about 8-12x the Earths mass and the other object about 2-6x the size of Earth.
Also these objects would have to be orbiting either between the Scatter and Kuipler belt or 2x the distance the killer belt orbits at
New Horizions is now orbiting Pluto! (I think)
Good video to get me excited about the horizon probe. I used to think that the horizon probe is a complete waste of money.
I once witnessed a comet in a clear night sky with the naked eye, it was majestic.
Request!: Another video summarizing some of the information from New Horizon's visit to Pluto and what the implications of this are.
I think the hypothetical red drawf star 'Nemesis' could be out there in the Oort Cloud
"You could hide a whole planet out there and it would be pretty hard to find."
Could Gallifrey be there?
Oh my ! There is Nibiru !
The last 2 minutes sound like some Planet X Nibiru alien shit to me.
6:35 HAIL ERIS !!!
And i met a unicorn…
Jan Oort ftw!
Phil, I hope you'll consider doing an episode on the Nice Model. I have had a hard time 1) finding a really good explanation of what set things in motion to result in the movement of the outer planets, and 2) finding a graphic that isn't teeny tiny and over in 2 seconds. I'm sure you and Thought Café could do a much better job at explaining this theory. Thanks
So, now that it turns out that Pluto is amazing, does it get its own episode?